SIGNED CDV OF U.S. GENERAL JOHN ADAMS DIX

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Full-standing studio view of Dix. He wears a double-breasted coat with general’s dress shoulder epaulettes. He wears a sash, sword belt, and sword. Nice image. Photographer’s backmark, E. & H.T. Anthony, New York from a Brady negative.

John Adams Dix (July 24, 1798 – April 21, 1879) was an American politician and military officer who was Secretary of the Treasury, Governor of New York and Union major general during the Civil War. He was notable for arresting the pro-Southern Maryland General Assembly, preventing that divided border state from seceding, and for arranging a system for prisoner exchange via the Dix–Hill Cartel, concluded in partnership with Confederate Major General Daniel Harvey Hill.

Dix was born in Boscawen, New Hampshire on July 24 1798. He was educated at Phillips Exeter Academy, and joined the US Army as an ensign in May 1813, serving under his father until the latter's death a few months later. He attained the rank of captain in August 1825 and resigned from the Army in December 1828.

In 1826, Dix married Catherine Morgan, the adopted daughter of Congressman John J. Morgan, who gave Dix a job overseeing his upstate New York land holdings in Cooperstown. In 1830, he was appointed as Adjutant General of the New York State Militia. He was Secretary of State of New York from 1833 to 1839, and a member of the New York State Assembly in 1842.

Dix was elected as a Democrat to the United States Senate from 1845 to 1849. In 1853 Dix was president of the Mississippi and Missouri Railroad. He was appointed Postmaster of New York City and served from 1860 to 1861. Dix was appointed United States Secretary of the Treasury by President James Buchanan in January 1861. At the outbreak of the Civil War, he sent a telegram to the Treasury agents in New Orleans ordering that: "If any one attempts to haul down the American flag, shoot him on the spot."

At the start of the American Civil War, Dix was appointed a major general in the New York Militia. With George Opdyke and Richard Milford Blatchford, he formed the Union Defense Committee, empowered by President Abraham Lincoln to spend public money during the initial raising and equipping of the Union Army. He joined the Union Army as the highest ranking major general of volunteers during the war. In the summer of 1861, he commanded the Department of Maryland and the Department of Pennsylvania. He arresting six members of the Maryland General Assembly and thereby preventing the legislature from meeting. This prevented Maryland from seceding, and earned him President Lincoln's gratitude. Dix commanded the Department of Virginia from June 1862 until July 1863, and the Department of the East from July 1863 until April 1865. Dix was United States Minister to France from 1866 to 1869 and Governor of New York from 1873 to 1874.

Dix died in New York City at age 80 and was buried at the Trinity Church Cemetery.

This image was part of the Ray Ritchie collection. [jet] [ph:L]

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